The Five Most Popular Talks and Workshops

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

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Scott M. Graffius is an Agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, award-winning author, and international public speaker. Content from his books, talks, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Cisco, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, Yale University, Adobe, Torrens University Australia, UK Sports Institute, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Boston University, Bayer, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Galway Ireland, United States National Park Service, and others.

Conference organizers, businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities invite him to speak on topics at the intersection of Agile Project Management, Business, and Technology. To date, Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. He uses everyday language and vibrant custom content to make complex topics clear and understandable, and he provides audiences with practical information they can use. His sessions are highly rated by attendees and organizers alike.

The top five talks and workshop topics are highlighted next.

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High Performance Teams

High Performance Teams is first on the list. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. The following provides a general overview.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on High Performance Teams may be called “Navigate the Phases of Team Development with Speed and Agility” or “Want Happier and More Productive Teams?” or another title.

  • Description: Help your teams go farther, faster! Perhaps you’re heard about the phases of team development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. But are you aware of the unique behaviors specific to each phase? What exactly should you do during each phase to help the team (Agile or otherwise) tackle challenges, make progress, and become successful? If you are a leader (or aspire to be one), a member of a team (or may be in one in the future), or are just looking to develop your skills, this talk (with a fresh angle: 0% theory, 100% real-world-based) will give you a practical framework with actionable tips for working in and leading teams successfully. You'll learn about the five phases—Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning—including detailed descriptions of each along with proven strategies for addressing challenges or issues which may occur along the way. You'll understand how to use the model to your advantage by effectively navigating all of the phases with speed and agility, from team set-up to the after-party! The presentation draws on the speaker’s first-hand, real-world experience, with his guidance supported by additional research, recommendations, and coverage from the Project Management Institute, IEEE, Google, NASA, and others.

  • Key learning benefits: This talk will help you develop and enhance the contributions you make to your organization by being able to: (1) Understand the five stages of team development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. (2) Learn the characteristics of each phase. (3) Apply proven strategies to help handle challenges or issues experienced by the team. By doing so, you'll advance the team's happiness, productivity, and success.


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Strategic Alignment

Strategic Alignment is second on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Strategic Alignment may be called “10 Ways to Score and Prioritize Project Proposals Based on Multiple Factors, Including Strategic Alignment” or “10 Ways to Achieve and Sustain Strategic Alignment” or another title.

  • Description: How does your organization assess proposals for new projects? Is there a well-defined scoring and prioritization process—based on alignment with the business’ strategic objectives and other key factors—to quickly and easily identify the objective value of each proposal (including how important it is relative to other initiatives)? If the answer is “no,” keep reading. If the answer is “yes,” you are likely to find practical information and examples in this talk to adapt and adopt to improve the process at your organization.

  • Key learning benefits: This talk will help you develop and enhance the contributions you make to your organization by being able to: (1) Understand the benefits of scoring and prioritizing project proposals based on strategic alignment and other key factors. (2) Identify selection and prioritization criteria appropriate for your unique organization, leveraging the flexible framework and some or all of the 10 factors presented during the talk. (3) Put the practical, actionable information presented to use. During the session, we will run an example project proposal through the process, step-by-step. And you will receive a summary "cheat sheet" digital download that you can reference as a guide to help implement or improve this process at your organization.


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Agile

Agile is third on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Agile may be called “Are You Realizing All the Benefits from Agile?” or “Agile Scrum Helps Innovators, Disruptors, and Entrepreneurs Develop and Deliver Products at Astounding Speed Which Drives Competitive Advantage” or another title.

  • Description: Organizations are increasingly embracing Agile to best meet their shifting business needs and successfully manage projects. Potential business benefits from Agile include faster delivery and ROI, rapid response to change, higher satisfaction, and continuous improvement. All of which supports innovation and helps drive competitive advantage. Are you realizing all of the benefits? This session will cover the full lifecycle of the most popular Agile approach, Scrum. You will be presented with practical information including top factors from successful implementations—based on the speaker's first-hand experience and 116 sources, including the PMI, IEEE, Google, Agile Alliance, and others—you can use to gain more benefits from Agile.

  • Key learning benefits: How you will benefit: (1) Gain a high-level understanding of the Scrum framework-from vision through release. (2) Learn the roles, responsibilities, tools, and techniques unique to Scrum. (3) All of which are inclusive of top factors from successful implementations, which you can put to use to help you get more benefits from Agile.


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AI Development


Successful AI Development is fourth on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Successful AI Development may be called “What Successful AI Development Teams Have in Common” or “Fueling the Development of Innovative and Life-Changing AI Solutions” or another title.

  • Description: Artificial Intelligence has emerged as a transformative force across a growing number of industries, revolutionizing how we live, work, and interact. From improved medical diagnoses to self-driving cars, and more, AI systems have become integral to our daily lives. Behind these cutting-edge, life-changing solutions are AI teams with a combination of skills. This session reveals exactly how the fusion of technical skills and soft skills within AI teams fuels the successful development of innovative and effective solutions. Informed by “In the AI era, soft skills are the new hard skills” (from Artificial Intelligence and Its Impact on Business), “Soft skills are becoming a key focus” (from Computerworld), “Don’t underestimate the power of a team dynamic – your product becomes the result of it” (from Microsoft), and “Competencies like teamwork are crucial” (from MIT), this talk also delivers a deep-dive on essential team development skills based on the science of high-performing teams. Scott’s talk draws from his work with AI development teams as well as research and coverage from the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Google, IBM, IEEE, Microsoft, Software Engineering Institute, and many others. The usable information can provide you, your teams, and your organization with a competitive advantage.

  • Key learning benefits: How you will benefit: (1) Understand technical skills and soft skills leveraged by successful AI teams to develop innovative and effective solutions. (2) Understand the essential team development skills based on the science of high-performing teams. (3) Understand specific techniques including how to apply them to advance the happiness, productivity, and success of teams.


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Video Game Development

Successful Video Game Development is fifth on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Successful Video Game Development may be called “The Science of High-Performance Video Game Development Teams” or “Level-Up Your Team: Science-Backed Strategies for High-Performance Video Game Development” or another title.

  • Description: Behind every great video game is a team of creative and technical wizards. Creators, storytellers, designers, artists, developers, testers, and others collaborate and leverage a diverse range of hard skills (also known as technical skills) and soft skills (also known as interpersonal skills) to craft an exceptional end-product. Of the many skills, one — a soft skill — is paramount. Activision Blizzard and other premiere developers and publishers of entertainment experiences identify teamwork as critical for the successful development of video games. Informed by Scott’s first-hand work with video game development teams as well as research and coverage from Activision Blizzard, Gameloft, International Game Developers Association, Microsoft, Rockstar Games, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Ubisoft, and others, this talk delivers a deep-dive on the essential teamwork skill based on the science of high- performing teams. The information can provide you, your teams, and your organization with a competitive advantage!

  • Key learning benefits: How you will benefit: (1) Understand that a confluence of both hard skills and soft skills (notably, teamwork) are crucial. (2) Learn the five phases of team development and recognize the identifiable characteristics of each phase. (3) Learn how to apply strategies to improve teams' efficacy, happiness, and success.


Those are the top five topics for talks and workshops.

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Before concluding this article, we’ll also point out a new topic which is becoming increasingly popular. It’s “Agile for Unicorns.” This session is for privately-held companies valued (or soon to be valued) at US $1 billion or more, and it’s limited to small groups at private/corporate events. To learn more, check out the information sheet:
https://scottgraffius.com/resources/Scott-M-Graffius---Public-Speaker---Example-Session---Agile-for-Unicorns---v24012907.pdf.

Visit Scott’s
Public Speaker page for a detailed listing of events, testimonials, and more.

Scott speaks around the world. To book him for your conference or other event, complete
speaker engagement request form or email him.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


scott-m-graffius-on-x---sg-on-x-design-2---v-feb-7-2024---lwres

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile framework―Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ Featured by The Manufacturers’ Alliance

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Featured by The Manufacturers’ Alliance - 1 - LwRes



‘How to Create Genuine Trust in a Team’ by The Manufacturers’ Alliance emphasizes that trust is essential for high-performing teams, and it highlights how to develop that critical success factor. The article features Scott M. Graffius' ‘Phases of Team Development’ work.

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A zoomed out image is shown above.

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Graffius periodically updates his work. The most current (2024) edition of his 'Phases of Team Development' visual is shown above. Select
here for details.

About The Manufacturers’ Alliance

The Manufacturers’ Alliance is a purpose and values-led organization that inspires manufacturing leaders to break through the boundaries of possibility. Its services are aligned with the following four distinct pillars.

  • Thought Leadership Events: Its online and in-person events help ambitious manufacturing owners and leaders understand what it takes to run a great business, providing inspiration with a constant stream of new ideas.
  • Peer Groups: It fosters meeting and networking with peers from the manufacturing sector.
  • The Academy: This resource supports the development of leadership and management skills needed for the future of manufacturing.
  • Hands-on Support: It offers help from a team of experienced business leaders with wide-ranging skills gained from decades of experience in the manufacturing sector.

Visit
https://www.manufacturersalliance.co.uk to learn more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes


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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile framework―Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/trust-sg

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Should You Be Nasty or Nice in Negotiations?

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M Graffius - Negotiation - Nasty or Nice - X Format without Title - Jan 21 2024 - LwRes

A PDF of this article is here.

Note: When discussing moods and behaviors related to negotiations, the respective research uses the terms “angry” or “nasty,” contrasted with “happy” or “nice.” For that reason, this article uses those same terms. Also consider that an unhappy, irritated, or frustrated person may be labeled as “angry.” And a tough, difficult, or demanding person may be labeled as “nasty.”




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Introduction


Chances are that you’ve already participated in some form of negotiations in your personal or professional life and that you’ll do so in the future. Negotiation is defined as a discussion between two or more parties aimed at resolving points of difference, crafting outcomes to satisfy various interests, or otherwise establishing an agreement. Handling a job offer, asking for a promotion, and buying and selling property such as a car or a house are just a few examples of deals you may have executed. Enhancing your negotiation strategies, tactics, and skills can have a big payoff on the outcomes of future deals.


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Main Section of Article

What can you add to your arsenal to help you maximize value at your next visit to the bargaining table? How about this: Is it advantageous to be nice or nasty in a negotiation? “The Interpersonal Effects of Anger and Happiness in Negotiations” — a study by Gerben A. Van Kleef and colleagues at the University of Amsterdam — uncovered the answer. Read on to gain insights from the work.

The study encompassed three experiments. The first experiment involved a computer-mediated negotiation in which participants couldn’t see their opponent. And participants were led to believe their counterpart was either happy or angry. The findings follow. Participants with an opponent who they thought was angry placed lower demands and made larger concessions than did participants with an opponent who they thought was happy.

The procedure for experiment 2 was similar to the first one. This one further explored the effect of the informed mood of negotiation counterparts. The results showed that participants used information on mood to infer their opponents’ limit and they adjusted their demands accordingly.

The third and final experiment examined the interplay between experienced and communicated emotion. It showed that angry communications (unlike happy ones) induced fear and thereby mitigated the effect of the counterpart’s experienced emotion.


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Conclusion

In conclusion, the study by Van Kleef and colleagues found that negotiators are influenced by their counterpart’s emotions. It showed that the expression of anger can be advantageous in some negotiation scenarios, challenging the “golden rule” that always being nice wins.

However, being angry or nasty doesn’t mean acting unethically. And if a person is simply acting a certain way, doing so could backfire if their counterpart sees through the display.

Based on the study and additional resources delineated in the references/sources section of this article, here are some considerations regarding behavior and mood during negotiations.

When to be nice in negotiations:

  • Long-term relationships: In repeated negotiations, fostering goodwill with friendly gestures like concessions or expressing empathy can benefit both parties in the long run. It builds trust and cooperation, creating a more positive environment for future deals.
  • Information exchange: When seeking information from your counterpart, a friendly approach encourages them to be open and share more readily. Creating a comfortable atmosphere lowers their guard and increases cooperation.
  • Concessions for compromise: When seeking a compromise, initiating friendliness can signal your willingness to concede and encourage reciprocation from the other party, leading to a mutually beneficial agreement.

When to be nasty in negotiations:

  • Short-term gains: In one-off negotiations, a strategic display of toughness (e.g., setting high demands, expressing firm resolve) can intimidate your opponent and pressure them into accepting less favorable terms.
  • Protecting resources: When facing an unfair or demanding adversary, a firm and assertive stance can help protect your resources and prevent exploitation.
  • Signaling strength: In situations where your bargaining power is unclear, projecting confidence and strength through assertive communication can deter the other party from taking advantage of you.

This article highlighted select valuable work on the nuances of negotiation behavior. For a deeper understanding, exploring the full research is highly recommended.

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References/Sources

Select (partial) bibliography:

  • Barry, B. (1999). The Tactical Use of Emotion in Negotiation. Research on Negotiation in Organizations, 7: 93-121.
  • Clark, M.S., & Taraban, C.B. (1991). Reactions to and Willingness to Express Emotion in Two Types of Relationships. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27: 324-336.
  • Frijda, N.H. (1986). The Emotions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Harvard Law School (2010, March 9). Should You be Nasty or Nice? Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School. Available at: https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/negotiation-skills-daily/should-you-be-nasty-or-nice.
  • Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). Social Functions of Emotions at Four Levels of Analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 13: 505-521.
  • Hüffmeier, J., Freund, P. A., Zerres, A., Backhaus, K., & Hertel, G. (2014). Being Tough or Being Nice? A Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Hard- and Softline Strategies in Distributive Negotiations. Journal of Management, 40 (3): 866-892.
  • Pietroni, D., Van Kleef, G.A., De Dreu, C.K.W., & Pagliaro, S. (2008). Emotions as Strategic Information: Effects of Other’s Emotions on Fixed-Pie Perception, Demands and Integrative Behavior in Negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44: 1444-1454.
  • Reis, H.T., & Collins, W.A. (2004). Relationships, Human Behavior, and Psychological Science. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13: 233-237.
  • Schwarz, N., & Clore, G.L. (1983). Mood, Misattribution, and Judgments of Well-Being: Informative and Directive Functions of Affective States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45: 513-523.
  • Sinaceur, M., Adam, H., Van Kleef, G. & Galinsky, A. (2013, May 1). The advantages of being unpredictable: How emotional inconsistency extracts concessions in negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49: 498-508.
  • Thayer, S. (1980). The Effect of Facial Expression Sequence Upon Judgments of Emotion. Journal of Social Psychology, 111: 305-306.
  • Van Beest, I., Van Kleef, G.A., & Van Dijk, E. (2008). Get Angry, Get Out: The Interpersonal Effects of Anger Communication in Multiparty Negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44: 993-1002.
  • Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How Emotions Regulate Social Life: The Emotions as Social Information (EASI) Model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18 (3): 184-188.
  • Van Kleef, G.A., De Dreu, C.K.W., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). The Interpersonal Effects of Anger and Happiness in Negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86: 57-76.
  • Voss, C. (2016). Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if Your Life Depended on It. New York, New York: Harper Business.

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How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, January 22). Negotiation Alchemy: Turning Frustration into Fuel for Win-Win Outcomes. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/win-win.html.


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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:



Follow Scott M Graffius on Twitter - v22122107 1000x1000 lr - sq

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile framework―Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/win-skill

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Scott M. Graffius’ Phases of Team Development: 2024 Update

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

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A PDF of this article is here.

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Introduction


Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development’ as a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning — inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

Graffius initially developed his unique material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it. This article (including the accompanying visual) provides the 2024 update to his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work.

Graffius
work has “team development” in the title. Alternative terms — which may be interchangeable in the context of this article — include group development, group dynamics, team agility, team building, team coaching, team collaboration, teamcraft, team dynamics, team leadership, team optimization, team performance, team tradecraft, and teamwork.

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Five Phases of Team Development

1. Forming

Characteristics of the Forming phase include displaying eagerness, socializing, generally polite tone, sticking to safe topics, unclear about how one fits in, and some anxiety and questioning.

Strategies for Forming include taking the ‘lead,’ being highly visible, facilitating introductions, providing the ‘big picture,’ establishing clear expectations, communicating success criteria, and ensuring response times are quick.

2. Storming

Traits of the Storming phase include some resistance, lack of participation, conflict based on differences of opinions, competition, and high emotions.

Strategies for Storming include requesting and encouraging feedback, identifying issues and facilitating their resolution, normalizing matters, and building trust by honoring commitments.

3. Norming

Features of the Norming phase include developing cohesion; purpose and goals are well-understood; more confident; improved commitment; members are engaged and supportive; and relief, lowered anxiety.

Strategies for Norming include delivering feedback, recognizing individual and team efforts, providing learning/upskilling opportunities, and monitoring the ‘energy’ of the team.


4. Performing

Characteristics of the Performing phase include demonstrations of interdependence and self-management; high motivation, trust, and empathy; individuals defer to team needs; producing deliverables effectively; and consistent performance.

Strategies for Performing include ‘guiding from the side’ (minimal intervention), highlighting successes, and encouraging collective decision-making and problem-solving.

5. Adjourning

Typical traits of the Adjourning phase (also referred to as the Transitioning or Mourning phase) include potential sadness, and disbanding of temporary teams.

Strategies for Adjourning include communicating change, conducting a summative team evaluation via a retrospective or lessons learned session, recognizing individual and team efforts and achievements, and celebrating the team's accomplishments (a party/after-party).

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Conclusion

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information in this article and the accompanying visual to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

This article provided a brief overview of the five phases of team development. Scott M. Graffius presents dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on this topic and more at conferences and other events (public and private/corporate) around the world. To learn more, visit
here. For booking information, please complete a speaker engagement request form or email Scott M. Graffius.

If you're looking for additional information on this article (such as references/sources, citation details, or permission request information), read on.

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Graffius’ Research is Widely Cited, Featured, and Used

Businesses, scientists, journalists, professional associations, government agencies, universities, and others around the world have featured and used prior — 2023 and earlier — editions of Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ material. Here are a few examples:

  • Academic Cooperation Association
  • Adobe
  • American Management Association
  • Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute
  • Bayer
  • Boston University
  • CodeMonk
  • Dagen
  • Deimos Aerospace
  • Erste Bank
  • FSU College of Medicine
  • Hasso Plattner Institute (Hasso-Plattner-Institut für Digital Engineering GmbH)
  • IEEE
  • Innovify
  • Life Sciences Trainers & Educators Network (LTEN)
  • London South Bank University
  • New Zealand Government
  • Prima Resource
  • Singapore University of Social Sciences
  • Technical University of Munich
  • Torrens University Australia
  • UK Sports Institute
  • University of Galway Ireland
  • University of Graz Austria
  • University of Waterloo
  • US National Park Service
  • Virginia Tech
  • Warsaw University of Technology
  • Yale University
  • Zittau/Gorlitz University of Applied Sciences
  • And many more

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References/Sources

Select (partial) bibliography:

  1. Activision Blizzard (2022, September 9). Tackling the Talent Shortage: Identifying the Skills Critical for Game Development. Available at: https://www.activisionblizzard.com/content/atvi/activisionblizzard/ab-touchui/ab/web/en/newsroom/2022/09/tackling-the-talent-shortage.html.
  2. Alfateh, Maryam Ali Abu; Messaadia, Mourad; and Ali, Mazen (2023, September). Exploring the Dynamics of Team Formation in Human-Artificial Intelligence Collaboration. In 2023 International Conference on Decision Aid Sciences and Applications (DASA), pp. 384-388, DOI: 10.1109/DASA59624.2023.10286788.
  3. Alford, J. (2019, April 11). Our Co-Production Journey: From Sandpits to Bird Boxes. London, United Kingdom: Imperial College London.
  4. Ali, A. J., Fuenzalida, J., Gómez, M., & Williams, M. J. (2021, June). Four Lenses on People Management in the Public Sector: An Evidence Review and Synthesis. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 37 (2): 335-366.
  5. Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute (2021). APH Quality Handbook. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute.
  6. Bandai Namco (n.d.). Teamwork Makes the Dream Work. Available at: https://bandainamcomobile.com/news/power-up-your-teamwork-how-bandai-namco-mobile-builds-stronger-teams.
  7. Bellet, C., De Neve, J., & Ward, G. (2019 October 14). Does Employee Happiness Have an Impact on Productivity? Saïd Business School WP 2019-13. Oxford, UK: Oxford University.
  8. Bennett, M., Gadlin, H., & Marchand, C. (2018). Collaboration Team Science: Field Guide. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health.
  9. Berlin School of Business and Innovation (2022, September 22). How Do Technical Abilities Combined with Leadership Skills Fuel Career Growth? Available at: https://www.berlinsbi.com/blog/career-advice/how-do-technical-abilities-combined-with-leadership-skills-fuel-career-growth.
  10. Brief, A. P. & Weiss, H. M. (2022, February). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53 (1): 279-307.
  11. Cisco (2019). Next-Generation IT Talent Strategies: How CIOs Can Close the Skills Gap and Drive True Business Transformation. Available at: https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/en_uk/solutions/executive-perspectives/pdf/ITTalent.pdf.
  12. Couture, N. (2016, October 27). A Note About Teams. CIO. Boston, MA: International Data Group (IDG).
  13. Daly, L. (2002). Identify Your Project Management Team’s Level of Development and Facilitate It to Success. Paper presented at Project Management Institute Annual Seminars and Symposium, San Antonio, TX. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
  14. Dechurch, Leslie; & Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica. (2010). The Cognitive Underpinnings of Effective Teamwork: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 95: 32-53.
  15. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (2023, February 23). Episode 65: A Sprint to Tomorrow, Powered by Teamwork [Podcast]. Available at: https://www.darpa.mil/news-events/2023-02-23a.
  16. Deloitte (2017). Digital Era Technology Operating Models, Volume 2. New York, NY: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited.
  17. DevOps Institute (2021). 2021 Upskilling Enterprise DevOps Skills Report. Boca Raton, FL: DevOps Institute.
  18. Dickinson, A.; & Stoneman, K. (1989). Individual Performance as a Function of Group Contingencies and Group Size. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 10: 131-150.
  19. Dolev, Niva, & Itzkovich, Yariv (2020). In the AI Era, Soft Skills are the New Hard Skills. In: Artificial Intelligence and Its Impact on Business, pp. 55-77. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  20. Dzombak, Rachel, & Palat, Jay (2021, August 30). 5 Ways to Start Growing an AI-Ready Workforce. Pittsburgh, PA: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University.
  21. Elliott, Joshua (n.d.). Artificial Social Intelligence for Successful Teams (ASIST). Arlington, VA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
  22. Exceptional Agility (2023, January 1). Making Teams More Agile: Strategies and Benefits. Available at: https://exceptionalagility.com/blog/files/teams.html.
  23. Finkelstein, S. (2017, October 29). Why Companies Should Hire Teams, Not Individuals. The Wall Street Journal. New York, NY: The Wall Street Journal.
  24. Forbes (2018, April 23). How to Fast-Track Any Team to Success. Forbes. New York, NY: Forbes.
  25. Forbes (2012, October 27). How the iPad Mini is Defining Tim Cook’s Apple. Forbes. New York, NY: Forbes.
  26. Gartner (2020, December 15). How to Staff Your AI Team. Available at: https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/how-to-staff-your-ai-team.
  27. Glover, P. (2012, March 13). Team Conflict: Why It’s a Good Thing. Fast Company. New York, NY: Mansueto Ventures.
  28. Gorman, Austin (2023, April 27). How to Strengthen Your Soft Skills for AI and the Future of Work. Fast Company. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/90887540/how-to-strengthen-your-soft-skills-for-ai-and-the-future-of-work.
  29. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, October 13). The Science of High-Performance Game Development Teams [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the W Love Games International Video Game Development Conference 2023 - Helsinki, Finland. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.28602.16326. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28602.16326.
  30. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, July 15). Successful Video Game Development Teams Leverage an Extensive Range of Hard Skills and Soft Skills. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/gamedev.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31205.17124.
  31. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, April 26). The Science of High-Performance Teams [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the DevOps Institute’s SKILup Day 2023 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.15888.28169. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.15888.28169.
  32. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, January 9). Use the Phases of Team Development (Based on Bruce W. Tuckman's Model of Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning) to Help Teams Grow and Advance: 2023 Update. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.10720.35846. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.10720.35846.
  33. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, June 29). What Successful AI Teams Have in Common [Presentation]. Talk delivered at Conf42 Quantum Computing 2023 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.29382.45120. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29382.45120.
  34. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, May 1). Fueling the Development of Innovative and Life-Changing AI Solutions [Presentation]. Talk delivered to an audience of Technology professionals (including Data Scientists, Machine Learning Engineers, Data Engineers, AI Researchers, Project Managers, Business Analysts, UX Designers, Software Developers, Cloud Architects, Data Privacy and Security Specialists, and others involved or interested in AI) at a private event in Mountain View, California, United States. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.27956.73601. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27956.73601.
  35. Graffius, Scott M. (2022, February 4). Team Development Tradecraft: A Source of Competitive Advantage [Workshop]. Session at private event in Adelaide, Australia. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14092.80002.
  36. Graffius, Scott M. (2022, May 13). Want Happier and More Productive DevOps Teams? [Presentation]. Talk delivered at DevOpsDays Geneva, Switzerland 2022 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.22252.85127. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.22252.85127.
  37. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, February 20). But First, the Team! [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the Brno, Czech Republic DevConf.CZ 2021 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.29016.72964. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29016.72964.
  38. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, June 21). DevOps and Team Leadership [Workshop]. Session at private event in Las Vegas, NV. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15380.22401.
  39. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, May 13). But First, the Team! [Presentation]. Lecture delivered at DevOps Pro Europe 2021 Conference. Based and simulcast live from Vilnius, Lithuania. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30524.36481.
  40. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, November 10). An Error Was Introduced Into the Seventh Edition of 'A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).’ Los Angeles, CA: Scott M. Graffius.
  41. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, November 8). Bruce Tuckman’s Model (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning) is Highly Relevant and Beneficial, But It Doesn’t Please Everyone. Los Angeles, CA: Scott M. Graffius.
  42. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, October 5). Navigate the Phases of Team Development with Speed and Agility for Happier and More Productive Teams [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Day 2021 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.20055.19365. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20055.19365.
  43. Graffius, Scott M. (2021). Phases of Team Development. Los Angeles, CA: Scott M. Graffius. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.22040.42246.
  44. Graffius, Scott M. (2018, October 18). Agile Scrum Helps Innovators, Disruptors, and Entrepreneurs Develop and Deliver Products at Astounding Speed Which Drives Competitive Advantage [Presentation]. Talk delivered at Techstars Startup Week Conference. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25009.12647.
  45. Himmelstein, D. (2018, January 26). Team Cycles and Culture Development. San Jose, CA: Acer, Inc.
  46. Humphrey, W. S., Chick, T. A., Nichols, W., and Pomeroy-Huff, M. (2010). Software Engineering Institute’s Team Software Process Body of Knowledge. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University.
  47. Infinity Ward (n.d.). Infinity Ward. Available at: https://www.infinityward.com.
  48. International Game Developers Association (IGDA) (n.d.). IGDA Foundation. Available at: https://igda.org/igda-foundation/.
  49. Jovanovic, M., Mesquida, A., Radaković, N., & Mas, A. (2016). Agile Retrospective Games for Different Team Development Phases. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 22: 1489-1508.
  50. KPMG (2017). The Digital Fund, Season 2. Amstelveen, Netherlands: KPMG International.
  51. Leswing, Kif (2023, June 5). Apple’s Practical Approach to A.I.: No Bragging, Just Features. CNBC. Available at: https://www.cnbc.com/2023/06/05/apple-practical-approach-to-ai-no-bragging-just-features.html.
  52. Life Sciences Trainers and Educators Network (LTEN) (2022). Leveraging a Cross-Functional Training Task Force to Create Training that Doesn’t Suck. LTEN 2022 Conference.
  53. Madden, D. (2019, May 19). The Four Stages of Building a Great Team – and the One Where Things Usually Go Wrong. Inc. Magazine. New York, NY: Inc. Magazine.
  54. Makar, A. (2011, July 13). Lessons Learned in Norming and Performing Team Development Phases. Louisville, KY: Tech Republic.
  55. Martinuzzi, B. (2012, June 8). Six Tips Guaranteed to Reduce Workplace Frustrations. New York, NY: American Express Company.
  56. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (2021, January). Cognitive Science as a New People Science for the Future of Work. Available at: https://workofthefuture.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/2021-Research-Brief-Polli-Kassir-Dolphin-Baker-Gabrieli.pdf.
  57. Microsoft (2019, June 15). Is the Latest Technology the Key to Your Team’s Success, or is There Something Else? Microsoft Developer Support. Accessed at: https://devblogs.microsoft.com/premier-developer/is-the-latest-technology-the-key-to-your-teams-success-or-is-there-something-else. Redmond, WA: Microsoft.
  58. Mocko, G., & Linnerud, B. (2016). Measuring the Effects of Goal Alignment on Innovative Engineering Design Projects. International Journal of Engineering Education, 32: 55-63.
  59. Negrón, A.P.P., Carranza, D.B., Muñoz, M. (2023). Video Game Development Process for Soft Skills Analysis. In: Mejia, J., Muñoz, M., Rocha, Á., Hernández-Nava, V. (eds), New Perspectives in Software Engineering. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Software Process Improvement (CIMPS 2022). Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol. 576. New York, NY: Springer.
  60. Riggs, A. (2020, October 15). Why I Start All My Video Meetings with Collaborative Games (Spoiler: It’s Not Boredom). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: The Next Web (TNW).
  61. Romanelli, M. (2019, September 11). Teamwork Accelerated. PM Times. Newmarket, Ontario, Canada: Macgregor Communications.
  62. Rowley, D., & Lange, M. (2007). Forming to Performing: The Evolution of an Agile Team. IEEE Computer Society Proceedings. Agile 2007, 1: 408-414.
  63. Sakpal, M. (2020, March 3. Learn How to Debunk These Five Restructuring Myths. Stamford, CT: Gartner, Inc.
  64. Sazali, A. R. B.; Khamarudin, F. B.; & Abdul Alahdad, S. N. B. (2022). Maximising the Zone of Proximal Development Benefits in Group Online Learning. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 12 (6): 1476-1496.
  65. Scaled Agile, Inc. (2023, March 14). Working Successfully in Agile with Remote Team Members. Available at: https://scaledagileframework.com/working-successfully-in-agile-with-remote-team-members/.
  66. Scrum Alliance (2020). Learning Objectives Examples. Denver, CO: Scrum Alliance.
  67. Stanford University (2019, September). Gathering Strength, Gathering Storms. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
  68. Steiner, Ivan D. (1972). Group Process and Productivity. New York, New York: Academic Press.
  69. Stern, S. (2018, September 26). Is Your Team Working the Rory Underwood Way? Financial Times. London, United Kingdom: The Financial Times, a Nikkei Company.
  70. Tamiru, Natasha (2023, June). Team Dynamics: Five Keys to Building Effective Teams. Google. Available at: https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/intl/en-emea/consumer-insights/consumer-trends/five-dynamics-effective-team.
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  72. Telford, R. (2013, June 4). This is Where It Gets Interesting. Armonk, NY: International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation.
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  74. Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental Sequence in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63: 384-399.
  75. Tuckman, B. W., & Jensen, M. A. C. (1977). Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited. Group and Organizational Studies, 2 (4): 419-427.
  76. United States Army (2015). Innovative Learning: A Key to National Security. Washington, DC: United States Army.
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How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, January 8). Scott M. Graffius
Phases of Team Development: 2024 Update. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/teams-2024.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28629.40168.

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Permission Request Information

To request permission to use the
‘Phases of Team Development’ visual shown at the top of this article or any other material from this publication, email Scott M. Graffius. If your request is approved, Graffius will give you an authorization/license and, if applicable, high-resolution files of the visual.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:



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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile framework―Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/teams-2024

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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

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A PDF of this article is
here.


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Introduction

Individuals and businesses use the Internet and other forms of digital communication to reach and engage target audiences and promote content. That’s digital marketing. It includes email, social media, web-based advertising, and text and multimedia messages.

A rapidly expanding component of digital marketing is social media marketing. It involves posting content on social media platforms such as Snapchat, X (formerly known as Twitter), Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs. The platforms enable people to connect with family and friends, share information and ideas, and access news and entertainment. The platforms also play a vital role in business by providing companies with direct channels to reach and engage with their target audiences. When well-executed, social media marketing delivers multiple benefits, including:

  • Engagement with a global audience — there are 4,950,000,000 (4.95 billion) active social media users worldwide.B1
  • Improved brand and marketplace awareness and reach.
  • Enhanced customer engagement.
  • Increased website traffic.
  • Improved search engine rankings.
  • And more.

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When content is published online, relevance and engagement have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). Data can help inform strategic and tactical decisions, such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the lifespan (half-life) of social media posts. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time.B2 For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. This article provides the update for 2024.

Reports by others on the shelf life of social media are often based on the experience of one person, one organization, or one limited set of data. With any of those common limitations, findings are at risk of being non-representative, inaccurate, or unreliable.

It’s important to have a broad set of data from multiple sources. In addition to generating results that are more likely to be appropriately representative, accurate, and reliable, this approach provides a more complete picture and helps identify trends. Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024” — this research report — is built on data from 37 sources.A

Based on an analysis of data from 37 diverse sources,A this report reveals the average lifespan (half-life) for posts on Snapchat, X, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs.

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Main Section of Article

As detailed next, the half-life of posts varies by social media platform.

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Snapchat

Snapchat

Snapchat is a multimedia instant messaging app and service developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc. A distinguishing feature of the platform is that pictures and messages are usually only available for a short time before they become inaccessible to their recipients. Snapchat has 750,000,000 (750 million) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Snapchat - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Snapchat posts is 0 minutes.A Exceptions apply. Snapchat messages may disappear instantly or live up to 24 hours (even longer in certain cases) depending on the type of message, user settings, and other details.

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Snapchat for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 0 minutes (exceptions apply).A
  • 2023: 0 minutes (exceptions apply).B4
  • 2022: 0 minutes (exceptions apply).B5


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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - X

X

X (formerly known as Twitter) is a microblogging and social networking service owned by X Holdings II, Inc. (a wholly owned subsidiary of X Holdings I, Inc., wholly owned by Elon Musk), on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". X has 666,000,000 (666 million) active users.B3 (Note: The data source is held in high regard. Some other organizations report a lower value.)

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - X - LwRes

The average half-life duration for tweets is 43 minutes.A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Twitter for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 43 minutes.A
  • 2023: 24 minutes.B4
  • 2022: 23 minutes.B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Facebook

Facebook

Facebook is an online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. It's the third most visited website in the world. Facebook has 3,030,000,000 (3.03 billion) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Facebook - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Facebook posts is 76 minutes (= 1.27 hours).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Facebook for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 76 minutes.A
  • 2023: 105 minutes.B4
  • 2022: 60 minutes.B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Instagram

Instagram

Instagram is a photo and video-sharing service owned by Meta Platforms. The service allows users to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Users can browse other users’ content by tag and location, view trending content, like photos, and follow other users to add their content to a personal feed. Instagram has 2,000,000,000 (2.00 billion) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Instagram - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Instagram posts is 1,185 minutes (= 19.75 hours).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Instagram for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 1,185 minutes (= 19.75 hours).A
  • 2023: 1,200 minutes (= 20.00 hours).B4
  • 2022: 1,170 minutes (= 19.50 hours).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - LinkedIn

LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented online service. It's a wholly-owned subsidiary of Microsoft. LinkedIn claims to have 875,000,000+ (875 million) users.B6 However, it does not report how many of those users are active users. It’s estimated that 424,000,000 (424 million) are active users.B7

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - LinkedIn - LwRes

The average half-life duration for LinkedIn posts is 1,458 minutes (= 24.30 hours).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on LinkedIn for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 1,458 minutes (= 24.30 hours).A
  • 2023: 1,440 minutes (= 24.00 hours).B4
  • 2022: 1,440 minutes (= 24.00 hours).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - YouTube

YouTube

YouTube is an online video-sharing platform. It's owned by Google, and it's the second most visited website, after Google Search. YouTube has 2,490,000,000 (2.49 billion) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - YouTube - LwRes

The average half-life duration for YouTube posts is 12,717 minutes (= 8.83 days).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on YouTube for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 12,717 minutes (= 211.95 hours = 8.83 days).A
  • 2023: 12,672 minutes (= 211.20 hours = 8.80 days).B4
  • 2022: 8,640 minutes (= 144.00 hours = 6.00 days).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Pinterest

Pinterest


Pinterest is an image-sharing service designed to enable the saving and discovery of information (specifically "ideas") on the internet using images — and on a smaller scale, videos — in the form of pinboards. The platform is operated by Pinterest, Inc. It has 465,000,000 (465 million) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Pinterest - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Pinterest posts is 164,518 minutes (= 3.76 months).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Pinterest for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 164,518 minutes (= 2,741.97 hours = 114.25 days = 16.32 weeks = 3.76 months).A
  • 2023: 164,270 minutes (= 2,737.83 hours = 114.08 days = 16.30 weeks = 3.76 months).B4
  • 2022: 164,270 minutes (= 2,737.83 hours = 114.08 days = 16.30 weeks = 3.76 months).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Blogs

Blogs

Blogs (a truncation of "weblogs") are discussion or informational websites consisting of discrete, often diary-style entries. Up until 2009, blogs were usually the work of individuals and each typically covered a single topic. In the 2010s, multi-author blogs (MABs) from media outlets and others emerged. In addition to featuring the writings of multiple authors, MABs often span a range of topics. It is estimated that there are over 600,000,000 (600 million) blogs.B8

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Blogs - LwRes

The average half-life duration for blog posts is 1,022,997 minutes (= 1.95 years).A

The functionality of blogs and other factors can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on blogs for 2024 along with the prior annual edition of this report (note: this research started reporting on blogs in 2023):

  • 2024: 1,022,997 minutes (1.95 years).A
  • 2023: 1,051,200 minutes (2.00 years).B4

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Conclusion

Conclusion

Social media platforms — such as Snapchat, X, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs — enable people to connect with family and friends, share information and ideas, and access news and entertainment. The platforms also provide organizations with direct channels to reach and engage with their target audiences.

The relevance and engagement of posts on social media platforms have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the lifespan (half-life) of social media posts. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time. For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. This report, which is based on half-life data from 37 sources, provides an update for 2024.

Social media analytics provide valuable insights that can support efforts to level-up engagement and results.B9,B10,B11,B12,B13,B14,B15 Data on the average lifespan (half-life) of posts, for example, can help inform strategic and tactical decisions such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Coverage

Graffius’ Research is Widely Cited

Scientists, researchers, journalists, academics, YouTubers, podcasters, SEO experts, analysts, businesses, and others have featured and used prior — 2023 and earlier — editions of Scott M. Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” research. Here are a few examples:

  • Bensley, Robert J., & Brookins-Fisher, Jodi (2023, December 14). Community and Public Health Education Methods: A Practical Guide—Fifth Edition. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. [The authors cover Graffius’ work in Chapter 10 (Using Social Media) and list Graffius’ work as reference number 84 on page 256. A link to the publication at Google Books is here: https://bit.ly/cphem-5.]
  • Berkessel, Juergen (2021, October 27). How Evergreen Posting on Social Media for Podcasters Creates Growth. Season 1, Episode 9 of the Podcasting Strategy Show. Available at: https://polymash.com/evergreen-posting. [The podcast references Graffius’ research. Show notes include Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual as well as a hyperlink to Graffius’ full report.]
  • Burton, Taylor (2022, November 2). Social Media Marketing: Leveraging LinkedIn. Pennsylvania Bar Institute. Available at: https://go.pbi.org/blog/social-media-marketing-leveraging-linkedin. [In the article, “LinkedIn posts are shown to have a longer lifespan” is hyperlinked to Graffius’ research.]
  • Center for Direct Marketing (2022, September 27). What Is the Average Lifespan of a Blog or Social Media Post? Available at: https://dmcenter.com/lifespan-of-a-post. [The article include data from Graffius and a hyperlink to his research.]
  • Chowdhary, Tanish (2023, March 21). 13 Best Twitter Thread Tools to Go Viral in 2023. Geekflare. Available at: https://geekflare.com/best-twitter-thread-tools. [The article includes Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual and a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) (2023, June 15). The Power of Social Media and How to Use It. 10th CEWEP Waste-to-Energy Congress, 14th - 16th June 2023, Berlin. Available at: https://www.cewep.eu/congress2023presentations/ and https://www.cewep.eu/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/4.1-Monika-Michalska.pdf. [CEWEP Congress presentation slide 9 featured Graffius’ visual, representing a summary of his research findings.]
  • Degraux, Xavier (2022, November 5). Quelle est la Durée d’un Post sur Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn. Available at: https://www.xavierdegraux.be/quelle-est-la-duree-dun-post-sur-twitter-instagram-linkedin. [In his article, Xavier Degraux — a social networks and content marketing consultant based in Belgium — discussed Graffius' work and provided a hyperlink to the research. Here's the title in English: How Long is a Post on Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn.]
  • Encompass Online Marketing (2023, March 15). How Often Should You Publish New Content? Available at: https://encompassonline.ca/blog/how-often-should-you-publish-new-content. [Among other points, the article references the lifespan of tweets and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Fallah, Georges (2023, December 18). The Best Times to Post on Social Media. Available at: https://www.vbout.com/blog/the-best-times-to-post-on-social-media. [The article has hyperlinks to Graffius’ research.]
  • Gebauer, Susanna (2022, October 25). Twitter Scheduling: How to Schedule Tweets for More Impact. Available at: https://susannagebauer.com/blog/twitter-scheduling/. [The article includes a link to Graffius' research.]
  • Geyser, Werner (2023, September 20). 34 Mind-blowing Pinterest Stats for 2023. Influencer Marketing Hub. Available at: https://influencermarketinghub.com/pinterest-stats. [The article references the durations of “three months” and provides a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • GoDaddy (2023, February 20). How to Do Social Media: A Guide for Small Businesses and Entrepreneurs. Available at: https://www.godaddy.com/resources/skills/how-to-do-social-media. [In discussing the lifespan of tweets, the article provides a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Gotch, Nathan (2023, December 4). How to Start an SEO Business (2024 Update). Available at: https://www.gotchseo.com/start-seo-company/. [The article includes Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual and a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Hawes, C. W. (2023, January 24). Social Media Half-Life. Available at: https://www.cwhawes.com/social-media-half-life. [The article identifies Graffius’ research and has a hyperlink to it.]
  • Lin, Yunduan, & Wang, Mengxin, & Zhang, Heng, & Zhang, Renyu, & Shen, Zuo-Jun Max (2021, June 9; revised 2023, June 28). Content Promotion for Online Content Platforms with the Diffusion Effect. SSRN. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3863104 and https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3863104. [The scientific paper mentions Graffius’ work, and it delineates his research in the References section.]
  • McErlain-Naylor, Stuart (2022, March 24). Social Media for Academia - All You Need to Know [Video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ka88MxZbU8o. [At timestamp 13:59 in the video, Dr. Stuart McErlain-Naylor displays a visual which summarizes the 2022 edition of Graffius’ research.]
  • MeetEdgar (2023, April 2). Everything You Need to Know About Repeating Social Media Content. Available at: https://meetedgar.com/blog/repeating-social-media-content. [This article from social media management tool company MeetEdgar discusses the lifespan of posts and it has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Memom, Alafiya (2023, June 14). Master the Art of Using Pinterest for Blogging in 2023. ContentStudio. Available at: https://blog.contentstudio.io/pinterest-for-blogging. [The article rounds up the half-life of Pinterest pins as “4 months” and it includes a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Metricool (2023, October 31). YouTube Marketing in 2023. Available at: https://metricool.com/youtube-marketing. [The article includes “According to Scott Graffius’s data ...” and a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Patel, Neil (2023, May 23). 18 Powerful Twitter Marketing Tips [That Actually Work]. Neil Patel. Available at: https://neilpatel.com/blog/twitter-marketing-tips. [In the article, “The average lifespan of one tweet” has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Pitzalis, Josh (2022, November 21). Finding Social Media Calendar Ideas for Twitter. Chirr App. Available at: https://getchirrapp.com/how-to/find. [The article references the half-life of a tweet and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Pugalia, Akash, & Lalani, Farah (2023, September 29). Digital Safety: How a Multi-Faceted Approach Can Help Tackle Real-World Harm. World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2023/09/digital-safety-multi-faceted-approach-tackle-real-world-harm. [The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) included data by Graffius on the half-life of social media. The World Economic Forum covered that PNAS study in their article.]
  • Rainey, Clint (2023, August 15). Social Media’s Toxic Impact Can Last Up to 8 Days. This Behavioral Scientist’s Solution Might Surprise You. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/90939081/social-media-toxic-impact-content-moderation-solution-behavior-science. [The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) included Graffius’ research data on the half-life of social media. Fast Company covered that PNAS publication — and summarized Graffius’ data from it — in their article.]
  • Rynek Pro (2023, June 26). Długość Å»ycia Postów (Half-Life) w Mediach Społecznościowych w 2023 Roku. Available at: https://rynek.pro/half-life-dlugosc-zycia-postow/#pll_switcher. [Rynek Pro, a Poland-based advertising agency, featured Graffius’ research in their article. Here’s the title in English: Life Expectancy of Posts (Half-Life) in Social Media in 2023.]
  • Schneider, Philipp J., & Rizoiu, Marian-Andrei (2023, August 22). The Effectiveness of Moderating Harmful Online Content. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120 (34): e2307360120. Available at: https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.2307360120. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2307360120. [The scientific paper references Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” research and uses his data.]
  • Strozyk, Kaylee (2023, November 3). 11 Tips on How to Use Pinterest for Real Estate. Fit Small Business. Available at: https://fitsmallbusiness.com/how-to-use-pinterest-for-real-estate-agents. [The article references that the half-life of Pinterest pins is “about 3.75 months.” Selecting the respective hyperlink brings up Graffius’ research.]
  • Thailand TV News (2022, August 16). Half-Life of Each Social Media Post. Available at: https://thailandtv.news/half-life-of-each-social-media-post-thumbsup. [The article incorporates data from Graffius’ work and it has a hyperlink to his research.]
  • The Tech Reps (2023, January 23). SEO or Social Media Marketing, Which is Better for Sales? [video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVmQdHDXCrw. [The Tech Reps used Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual as the background image in their video.]
  • Two Rivers Marketing (2020, December 9). 8 Social Media Channels and Tactics to Consider Adding to Your Marketing Mix. Available at: https://www.tworiversmarketing.com/blog/8-social-media-channels-and-tactics-to-consider-adding-to-your-marketing-mix. [The article references the lifespan of posts and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Walters, Christy (2023, May 4). How To Curate Content for LinkedIn: Handpick Your Next Post. CopyPress. Available at: https://www.copypress.com/kb/social-media-promotion/curate-content-for-linkedin. [The article discusses the lifespan of a LinkedIn post and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • And many more.

Graffius appreciates the coverage of his research.

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_References

References/Sources

References/sources are organized into two sections - A and B.

A. Here are the sources related to the lifespan (half-life) of social media posts:

  • A1. Adobe
  • A2. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
  • A3. Bit(dot)ly
  • A4. Business Insider
  • A5. Business Standard
  • A6. Cornell University
  • A7. Emeritus
  • A8. Espirian
  • A9. Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions
  • A10. Fanbooster (Traject)
  • A11. Fast Company
  • A12. Forbes
  • A13. Google
  • A14. Halverson Group
  • A15. IEEE
  • A16. Ignite Social Media
  • A17. Kinsta
  • A18. Klout
  • A19. Later
  • A20. Moz
  • A21. New York Times
  • A22. Pinterest
  • A23. Royal Town Planning Institute
  • A24. Science(dot)org
  • A25. Sculpt - B2B Social Media Agency
  • A26. Simply Measured
  • A27. Snapchat
  • A28. Social Media Marketing
  • A29. Social Media University—Global
  • A30. Tapp Network
  • A31. TechniqueHow
  • A32. The Online Advertising Guide
  • A33. Université de Genève
  • A34. University of Akron
  • A35. Washington Post
  • A36. WebFX
  • A37. Wiselytics

B. Here are the references for additional information (such as the number of active users on platforms, etc.; see section A for sources related to the half-life of posts):

  • B1. Statista (2023, August 31). Social Media - Statistics and Facts.
  • B2. Trivette, Hannah (2022, October 14). A Guide to Social Media Algorithms and SEO. Forbes.
  • B3. Statista (2023, October). Most Popular Social Networks Worldwide as of October 2023.
  • B4. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, January 1). Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2023. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/social-2023.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19783.98722.
  • B5. Graffius, Scott M. (2022, January 5). Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2022. Available at: https://www.scottgraffius.com/blog/files/social-2022.html.
  • B6. LinkedIn.
  • B7. Macready, Hannah (2023, February 22). 47 LinkedIn Statistics You Need to Know in 2023. Hootsuite.
  • B8. Ong, Si Quan (2023, January 27). 59 Blogging Statistics for 2023.
  • B9. Colicev, Anatoli, & Malshe, Ashwin, & Pauwels, Koen, & O'Connor, Peter (2018). Improving Consumer Mindset Metrics and Shareholder Value Through Social Media: The Different Roles of Owned and Earned Media. Journal of Marketing, 82 (1): 37-56.
  • B10. Collier, Azure (2017, April 28). How to Create a Social Media Posting Schedule. Constant Contact.
  • B11. IBM (n.d.). What is Social Media Analytics. Available at: https://www.ibm.com/topics/social-media-analytics.
  • B12. Kanuri, V. K., & Chen, Y., & Sridhar, S. (2018). Scheduling Content on Social Media: Theory, Evidence, and Application. Journal of Marketing, 82 (6): 89-108.
  • B13. Liadeli, G., & Sotgiu, F., & Verlegh, P. W. J. (2023). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Brands' Owned Social Media on Social Media Engagement and Sales. Journal of Marketing, 87 (3): 406-427.
  • B14. Perreault, Marie-Catherine, & Mosconi, Elaine (2018). Social Media Engagement: Content Strategy and Metrics Research Opportunities. Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: 3568-3577.
  • B15. Trunfio, Mariapina, & Rossi, Simona (2021). Conceptualising and Measuring Social Media Engagement: A Systematic Literature Review. Italian Journal of Marketing, 2021 (3):267-292.

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Cite

How to Cite this Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, January 1). Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/social-24.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21043.60965.

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Permission

Permission Request Information

To request permission to use the “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024” visual shown at the top of this article or any other material from this publication,
contact Scott M. Graffius. If your request is approved, Graffius will give you an authorization/license and, if applicable, high-resolution files of the visual.

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About Scott M. Graffius


Scott M Graffius - Generated 1 Point 9 Billion USD - v Dec 27 2023 G - LwRes

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow instructions, the multi award-winning
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Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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